In modern buildings ventilation systems are necessary for IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) Control. There are different types of ventilation systems in modern buildings. Because of these introduction of most modern technology is focusing on this field. A ventilation system of a building is not compulsory to run 24 hours a day and 365 days a year, because we can regulate the ventilation rate or ACH (Air change per hour) according to the occupancy in an area.

Ventilation ducts in a car park for the Gare de Lyon Train Station – Paris, France.

Ventilation is providing to control the air contamination rate of an area to a desired limit and gain maximum productivity. In buildings air handling systems are usually known as ACMV (Air Conditioning and Mechanical Ventilation). Certain regions around the world regulation of temperature can be achieved using only ventilation. In these regions conditioning of air is done regulating humidity using economizers and humidifiers. Because of these energy management in ventilation units are more focused.

Conventional Ventilation systems were occupied with only duct and a CFD (Constant Frequency Drive) fan of adequate static and air flow rate. After the invention of VFD’s in early 1900s, the concept of ventilation changed. Begin to use VFD drive Ventilation fans with ducts for supplying and extraction of air. This continued till the invention of jet fan in 60s. Jet fans were first used in tunnels for the extraction of polluted air inside the tunnel when vehicle is passing by. In tunnels linearly arranged jet fan force the air up to the consecutive fan and so on. This creates a flow of air inside the tunnel and resulted in new type of ventilation system without ducts to carry air.

After the devastating improvement in the field of electronics and information technology in 80s and 90s. The analysis software and supporting hardware computers were introduced to market in an affordable range. This helps design engineers to introduce more sophisticated ventilation systems to the field of ACMV. By analyzing fluid flow stimulation using software programs designers were able to design more efficient system by lowering power usage than the conventional system. This types of systems are using for car parking area, basement ventilation etc. Large network of co2 sensors and detectors are using to this system for the efficient working. The sensors will detect the co2 rate in a sector and control the flow rate or even turn off the unit to avoid the unnecessary operation of a unit in the system. The arrangement of the fans are all done using CFD analysis for achieving more efficient system and with strong engineering backing.

In certain areas like medical care facilities, large malls, IT buildings another type of system is used known as energy recovery ventilator. This is used because in these types of buildings the exhaust air may be less than the ambient temperature. This low temperature exhausted air is used to cool down the ambient intake air using an energy recovery wheel. By doing this we can reduce the chilled water usage to the fresh air intake. The air flow rate and the speed of wheel is VFD controlled with the sensors attached in the machine and terminal units to detect the return air temperature and the rate of co2 content in the return air.


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